Common Eye Conditions:
Anatomy of The Human Eye : click here for video
Myopia – People with myopia (nearsightedness) will have difficulty reading road signs and seeing distant objects clearly, but will be able to see well for close-up tasks such as reading and computer use. Diagram “Click Here” Video “Click here”
Presbyopia – Presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects. It usually occurs beginning at around age 40, when people experience blurred near vision when reading, sewing or working at the computer. Diagram “Click Here” Video “Click Here”
Esophoria – is a condition characterised by inward deviation of the eyes, usually due to extra-ocular muscle imbalance. Causes include: Refractive errors, Divergence insufficiency, Convergence excess; this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or mechanical anomalies. “Click here for video” and “Click here for image”. The eyes may not necessarily looked crossed but deviation can occur when tired or under stress.
Exophoria – is a condition characterised by a tendency of the eyes to deviate outward. During examination, when the eyes are dissociated, the visual axes will appear to diverge away from one another. “Click here for video” and “Click here for image”. The eyes may not necessarily turn out but can do when tired or under stress. Pencil-to-nose exercises or “Pencil Pushups” are a way to controll exophoria – for a video on how they work “click here”
Dry Eye – Dry eye is a common condition that occurs when your tears aren’t able to provide adequate lubrication for your eyes. Diagram “Click here”
Dry Eye Treatment – IPL (Intense Pulsed Light) Video “Click Here” . Dry eye can often result in watery eyes as a reaction to the wet eyelid moving over the dry eye.
Dry Eye Prevention Tips
- Try not to use a hair dryer, if possible.
- Stay away from very warm rooms. In the winter, add moisture to the air with a humidifier. Or put a pan of water near your heater or radiator.
- Protect your eyes from drying wind by wearing wrap-around glasses outside.
- Talk to your ophthalmologist about adding omega-3 fatty acids to your diet for dry eye relief. They are found naturally in oily fish (such as salmon, sardines, tuna, trout, and anchovies), and in flaxseeds. Omega-3 fatty acids can be added as a dietary supplement (pill or tablet). Lacritech Tablets contain Flaxseed and Omega 3 to help stimulate tears. Ask us about them.
- Do you wake up with dry and scratchy eyes? Use artificial tear ointment or thick eye drops just before you go to bed.
Conjunctivitis (also called pink eye) is inflammation of the thin, clear covering of the white of the eye and the inside of the eyelids (conjunctiva). It’s characterized by redness and a gritty sensation in your eye, as well as itching of the eyes. Conjunctivitis is caused by either a virus or bacteria and is extremely contagious. Viral conjunctivitis results in a watery discharge “Click here for image” where as bacterial conjunctivitis results in a milky discharge “Click here for image”.
Blepharitis – is probably the most common eye condition of all. It affects the margins of the eyelids where the lashes come out and results in a crusting/dandruff-like deposit along the lid margins. Click here for an image. Systane Lid Wipes are used to treat Blepharitis “Click here for instructional video” but Baby Shampoo is also a very effective treatment – “Click here for instructional video”
Floaters/Spots/Flashes – Eye floaters are those tiny spots, specks, flecks and “cobwebs” that drift aimlessly around in your field of vision. While annoying, ordinary eye floaters and spots are very common and usually aren’t cause for alarm. If you see a shower of floaters and spots, sometimes accompanied by light flashes, you should seek medical attention immediately. Video “Click Here” and “Click Here”
Diabetes – Diabetes affects virtually all structures of the eye, but it is important to know that some conditions found in people with diabetes are not an indication that eye disease will progress to permanent vision loss or blindness. Video “Click here” and “Click here” .
Cataracts – A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world. Diagram “Click Here” and Video “Click Here” and video of sugery “Click Here”
Glaucoma – Glaucoma is not just one eye disease, but a group of eye conditions resulting in optic nerve damage, which may cause loss of vision. Abnormally high pressure inside your eye (intraocular pressure) usually, but not always, causes this damage. Diagram “Click Here” and Video “Click Here”
Macular Degeneration – Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is degeneration of the macula, which is the part of the retina responsible for the sharp, central vision needed to read or drive. Because the macula primarily is affected in AMD, central vision loss may occur. Link to Wet Macular Degeneration video: click here and “Click Here” and “Click Here”. Link to Dry Macular Degeneration “Click Here”. Certain foods can help maintain healthy retinas and vision “click here” to see the best foods to eat.
Vitromacula Traction – Vitreomacular traction is a condition in which the vitreous gel has an abnormally strong adhesion to the retina. Over time, the gel tends to pull forward and can cause vessel and retinal distortion causing retinal swelling and decreased vision. For link to more information “Click Here” .
Pterygium – A pterygium is a triangular-shaped lump of tissue with blood vessels that grows from the conjunctiva (the thin membrane that covers the white of the eye) on to the cornea (the clear central part of the eye). The development of pterygia is strongly associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation and hot, dry environments. Video animation “Click Here” and then scroll down.
OSSN – Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN) is a common malignancy of the conjunctiva and cornea. It can be thought of as a ‘skin cancer’ of the eye. It is more common in patients who are older, have had significant sunlight exposure or are taking immune system suppressing drugs. Most commonly found at the 3 or 9 o’clock position and has a fleshy, gelatinous appearance with a round or oval shape. Usually assymptomatic and slow growing. Click here for an image of OSSN.
Sub-conjunctival Haemorrhage -The conjunctiva is the thin tissue that covers the sclera which is the outermost protective coating of the eyeball. A subconjunctival haemorrhage is blood that is located between the conjunctiva and the underlying sclera. The small blood vessels within the conjunctiva may break spontaneously or from injury, causing a red area on the sclera, resulting in a subconjunctival haemorrhage. There are usually no symptoms associated with a subconjunctival haemorrhage and is often first noticed by looking in the mirror or from another person saying that one’s eye looks red. Most subconjunctival haemorrhages clear without treatment in one to two weeks. For images “click here”
Visual Migraines – Ocular migraines are painless, temporary visual disturbances that can affect one or both eyes. Though they can be frightening, ocular migraines typically are harmless and self-resolve without medication within 20 to 30 minutes.
If an ocular migraine-like vision disturbance is followed by a throbbing, usually one-sided headache, this is called a “migraine with aura” (previously called a classic migraine), and the visual disturbance is referred to as an aura rather than an ocular migraine.
Migraine auras usually are visual in nature, but they can include disturbances of hearing, speech or smell; progressive numbness or tingling in the face or arms or legs; or generalized weakness.
It’s also possible, though less common, for an ocular migraine and a migraine headache to occur simultaneously, causing visual disturbances and unilateral (one-sided) or bilateral (two-sided) head pain at the same time. An ocular migraine may also follow a migraine headache. Typical Image “Click Here” . For a short video re-enactment of visual migraines “click here” .
Epiretinal Membranes – Epiretinal Membranes are thin sheets of fibrous tissue that form on the macula and acts like a “film” making vision more difficult. The film may also contract like scar tissue, which can pull on the delicate retina at the back of your eye. This ‘puckering’ of the macula can distort your vision, and can also cause the retina to swell so it doesn’t work as well. This condition is known as a ‘macular pucker’. Not all epiretinal membranes require treatment. If the epiretinal membrane is very mild, and has little or no effect on your vision, then treatment will generally be unnecessary. Epiretinal membranes are often confused with macular degeneration. Although both conditions affect the macula (the sharp focusing area of the retina at the back of your eye) they actually have different symptoms and causes. OCT Image Normal Retina V Epiretinal Membrane “Click here”
Orthokeratology – Orthokeratology or “Ortho K” is the procedure of wearing a rigid or hard contact lens whilst you sleep. The hard contact lens changes the shape of the front surface of the eye, the cornea, resulting in clear vision during the day. For this specialised contact lens fitting we recommend Mark Hinds Optometrist at New Farm “Click here for information about Mark”. Video of how Ortho K works “Click Here”
Colour Vision – Colour Vision Defects are commonly referred to as “Colourblind” but this is not an accurate definition as the eye concerned can see colours but not the same as a normal colour correct eye. Even though the Colour Vision Defective eye will never be able to see colours like the normal there are lenses called “iRO” lenses that will help the Colour Vision Defective eye to differentiate colours. This is a specialised lens and is only available at a few Optometrists in Australia. We recommend Ian Rosser from Rosser Optometrists. Click here to contact Ian for an appointment.
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(07) 3268 1822
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